Unintended damage to people or objects that affect the functioning of the system we choose to analyse Adaption.
The process of adjustment to actual or expected conditions and their effects. In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In some natural systems, human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected conditions and their effects.
Individual or package of relevant interventions or actions that promote a chosen adaptation direction.
People who are affected, either directly or indirectly, by a hazardous event. Directly affected are those who have suffered injury, illness or other health effects; who were evacuated, displaced, relocated or have suffered direct damage to their livelihoods, economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets. Indirectly affected are people who have suffered consequences, other than or in addition to direct effects, over time, due to disruption or changes in economy, critical infrastructure, basic services, commerce or work, or social, health and psychological consequences.
related to disaster risk: an approach to determine the nature and extent of disaster risk by analysing potential hazards and evaluating existing conditions of exposure and vulnerability that together could harm people, property, services, livelihoods and the environment on which they depend (UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2017).
This encompasses the preferred actions in a specific type of situation to efficiently and effectively achieve a certain objective. Best Practices may be formalized in internal policy documents such as handbooks and standard operation procedures and could be based on one or several lessons learned approved by decision-makers.
BUILD BACK BETTER
The use of the recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction phases after a disaster to increase the resilience of nations and communities through integrating disaster risk reduction measures into the restoration of physical infrastructure and societal systems, and into the revitalization of livelihoods, economies and the environment.
A set of ordinances or regulations and associated standards intended to regulate aspects of the design, construction, materials, alteration and occupancy of structures which are necessary to ensure human safety and welfare, including resistance to collapse and damage.
Context-based study, realised through fieldwork, to assess the LINKS Framework. A case implies an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real- life context.
The assessment of the LINKS Framework in local cases.
The combination of all the strengths, attributes and resources available within an organization, community or society to manage and reduce disaster risks and strengthen resilience.
The ability of people, organizations and systems, using available skills and resources, to manage adverse conditions, risk or disasters. The capacity to cope requires continuing awareness, resources and good management, both in normal times as well as during disasters or adverse conditions. Coping capacities contribute to the reduction of disaster risks.
The process by which the capacity of a group, organization or society is reviewed against desired goals, where existing capacities are identified for maintenance or strengthening and capacity gaps are identified for further action.
The process by which people, organizations and society systematically stimulate and develop their capacities over time to achieve social and economic goals. It is a concept that extends the term of capacity building to encompass all aspects of creating and sustaining capacity growth over time. It involves learning and various types of training, but also continuous efforts to develop institutions, political awareness, financial resources, technology systems and the wider enabling environment.
Citizens can be considered via the same levels as the other stakeholders, and for LINKS, particular relevance should be given to local citizens who are likely to be impacted by the case studies. LINKS identifies two key sub-categories of citizen stakeholders: Civil Society and Vulnerable Populations
Scientific work carried out by the general public in collaboration with professional researchers in various phases of research, including data collection, data analysis and the production of knowledge. Citizen science is also known as community science and crowd science.
Defined as of public utility, it is the system that exercises the civil protection function consisting of the set of skills and activities aimed at protecting life, physical integrity, assets, settlements, animals and the environment damage or the danger of damage resulting from natural hazards or human activity.
Civil society organisations and non-governmental organisations. This includes educational istitutions, organised volunteers’ groups and other such as social movement organisations and networks. These organisations reflect the interests and will of citizens, while remaining independent of the government or authorities, as they will operate for the collective good, absent direct state control and commercial interest.
A management process that analyses disaster risks and establishes arrangements in advance to enable timely, effective and appropriate responses
The use of available skills, resources, and opportunities to address, manage, and overcome adverse conditions, with the aim of achieving basic functioning in the short to medium term.
The ability of people, organizations, and systems, using available skills, resources, and opportunities, to address, manage, and overcome adverse conditions.
Unstable condition involving an impending abrupt or significant change that requires urgent attention and action to protect life, assets, property or the environment.
Crisis communication includes the collection and processing of information for organizational decision making along with the creation and dissemination of crisis messages to people outside of the organization.
Holistic management process that identifies potential impacts that threaten an organization and provides a framework for building resilience, with the capability for an effective response that safeguards the interests of the organization’s key interested parties, reputation, brand and value creating activities, as well as effectively restoring operational capabilities.
The physical structures, facilities, networks and other assets which provide services that are essential to the social and economic functioning of a community or society.
Physical and information technology facilities, networks, services and assets which, if disrupted or destroyed, would have a serious impact on the health, safety, security or economic well-being of citizens or the effective functioning of governments in State.
Describes a distributed problem-solving model where the task of solving a challenge or developing an idea get “outsourced” to a cloud. It implies tapping into “the wisdom of the crowd”.
Data represent values attributed to parameters, and information is data in context and with meaning attached.
A collection of separate sets of information that is treated as a single unit by a computer [https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/dataset].
A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society at any scale due to hazardous events interacting with conditions of exposure, vulnerability and capacity, leading to one or more of the following: human, material, economic and environmental losses and impacts.
DISASTER COMMUNITY TECHNOLOGY (DCT)
A DCT is a software(-function) for interaction with, within or among groups of people who have similar interests or have common attributes (communities) in case of a disaster as well as performing analysis of these interactions.
Disaster governance refers to the way in which multiple actors across levels and sectors (public authorities, civil servants, citizens, media, private sector, and civil
society actors) coordinate and collaborate in order to manage disaster risks. See also governance.
DISASTER LOSS DATABASE
A set of systematically collected records about disaster occurrence, damages, losses and impacts, compliant with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 monitoring minimum requirements.
The organization, planning and application of measures preparing for, responding to and recovering from disasters.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
Set of phases related to disasters and their management. Also, see response, recovery preparedness, prevention.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT PROCESSES (DMP)
A collective term encompassing a systematic series of actions or steps taken to reduce and manage disaster risk. Disaster management processes are often associated directly with the phases of the Disaster Management Cycle.
In the context of LINKS, we specifically refer to DMP as the policy frameworks, tools and guidelines developed to govern disasters across all phases of the Disaster Management Cycle.
The capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure.
The potential loss of life, injury, or destroyed or damaged assets which could occur to a system, society or a community in a specific period of time, determined probabilistically as a function of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and capacity. Acceptable risk, or tolerable risk, is therefore an important subterm; the extent to which a disaster risk is deemed acceptable or tolerable depends on existing social, economic, political, cultural, technical and environmental conditions. In engineering terms, acceptable risk is also used to assess and define the structural and non-structural measures that are needed in order to reduce possible harm to people, property, services and systems to a chosen tolerated level, according to codes or “accepted practice” which are based on known probabilities of hazards and other factors.
Residual risk is the disaster risk that remains even when effective disaster risk reduction measures are in place, and for which emergency response and recovery capacities must be maintained. The presence of residual risk implies a continuing need to develop and support effective capacities for emergency services, preparedness, response and recovery, together with socioeconomic policies such as safety nets and risk transfer mechanisms, as part of a holistic approach.
DISASTER RISK ASSESSMENT
A qualitative or quantitative approach to determine the nature and extent of disaster risk by analysing potential hazards and evaluating existing conditions of exposure and vulnerability that together could harm people, property, services, livelihoods and the environment on which they depend.
DISASTER RISK GOVERNANCE
The system of institutions, mechanisms, policy and legal frameworks and other arrangements to guide, coordinate and oversee disaster risk reduction and related areas of policy.
DISASTER RISK INFORMATION
Comprehensive information on all dimensions of disaster risk, including hazards, exposure, vulnerability and capacity, related to persons, communities, organizations and countries and their assets.
DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT
Disaster risk management is the application of disaster risk reduction policies and strategies to prevent new disaster risk, reduce existing disaster risk and manage residual risk, contributing to the strengthening of resilience and reduction of disaster losses.
DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Disaster risk reduction is aimed at preventing new and reducing existing disaster risk and managing residual risk, all of which contribute to strengthening resilience and therefore to the achievement of sustainable development.
Adjustments based on values, norms and beliefs, which are used by residents of hazardous areas in their efforts to cope with disasters which have struck or which tradition indicates may strike in the future.
In LINKS, diversity is characterised by two central aspects. On the one hand diversity in LINKS is understood as an individual aspect, characterized by personal markers, diversity awareness and different cultural belonging. On the other hand, diversity is a range of capabilities, information and data resources, skills and knowledge (scientific and experiential) to which systems can draw upon.
DIVERSITY BY DESIGN
Entails making diversity ideas, ideals and considerations both integrally and structurally imbedded into the design and functioning of projects, work environments, decision making, professional choices, and interpersonal relationships.
In LINKS, it is incapsulated in the methods and tools needed to endow stakeholders with the capability to reason about the diversity aspects of their actions, and the methods, tools and formalisms to guarantee that diversity is considered in all the phases of the design, implementation and use of the LINKS work and ouputs.
EARLY WARNING SYSTEM
An integrated system of hazard monitoring, forecasting and prediction, disaster risk assessment, communication and preparedness activities systems and processes that enables individuals, communities, governments, businesses and others to take timely action to reduce disaster risks in advance of hazardous events.
Total economic impact that consists of direct economic loss and indirect economic loss.
Direct economic loss: the monetary value of total or partial destruction of physical assets existing in the affected area. Direct economic loss is nearly equivalent to physical damage.
Indirect economic loss: a decline in economic value added as a consequence of direct economic loss and/or human and environmental impacts.
Sudden, urgent, usually unexpected occurrence or event requiring immediate action.
The managerial function charged with creating the framework within which communities reduce vulnerability to hazards and cope with disasters.
The organization and management of resources and responsibilities for addressing all aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and initial recovery steps.
EMERGENCY RESPONSE UNIT (ERU)
A team of trained technical specialists, ready to be deployed at short notice, which uses pre-packed sets of standardized equipment. ERUs are present at different scales and often have different capabilities.
Moving people and assets temporarily to safer places before, during or after the occurrence of a hazardous event in order to protect them.
The presence of people; livelihoods; species or ecosystems; environmental functions, services, and resources; infrastructure, or economic, social, or cultural assets in places and settings that could be adversely affected.
EXTENSIVE DISASTER RISK
The risk of low-severity, high-frequency hazardous events and disasters, mainly but not exclusively associated with highly localized hazards.
False or inaccurate information that misleads its readers. Misinformation is false information spreading without the intent to mislead (unintentionally inaccurate), Disinformation is deliberately misleading or biased information (intentionally deceiving such as manipulated facts and propaganda).
A first responder is a member of an authority or oganisation or an individual responding first to the scene of an emergency. First responder are for example a member of fire and rescue departments, police departments, other law enforcement agencies, hazardous materials response teams, emergency medical services, and other organizations that have public safety responsibilities and who would respond to rescue and treat victims, and who would protect the public during an incident.
Digital data that represent the geographical location and characteristics of natural or man-made features, phenomena and boundaries of the Earth. Geodata represent abstractions of real-world entities, such as roads, buildings, vehicles, lakes, forests and countries. Geodata refers to such data in any format, including raster, vector, point, text, video, database records, etc.
Refers to more than the formal institutions and organisations through which the management of disasters is or is not sustained. It comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions, through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences. It should be noted that governance is not government, even though government is often part of a governance process.
A process, phenomenon or human activity that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
Hazards may be natural, anthropogenic or socionatural in origin. Natural hazards are predominantly associated with natural processes and phenomena. Anthropogenic hazards, or human-induced hazards, are induced entirely or predominantly by human activities and choices. This term does not include the occurrence or risk of armed conflicts and other situations of social instability or tension which are subject to international humanitarian law and national legislation.
Hazard is defined as a human process, phenomenon or activity that can result in loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Hazards may be natural, anthropogenic or socionatural in origin.
The manifestation of a hazard in a particular place during a particular period of time.
Information is associated with data, as data represent values attributed to parameters, and information is data in context and with meaning attached. Information also relates to knowledge, as knowledge signifies understanding of an abstract or concrete concept.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
ICT is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage and audiovisual systems, that enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
INTENSIVE DISASTER RISK
The risk of high-severity, mid- to low-frequency disasters, mainly associated with major hazards.
Institutions are social structures that are composed of regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive elements that provide stability and meaning to social life. Institutions provide the ‘rules of the game’ and define the available ways to operate by discouraging, constraining or encouraging given behavioral patterns.
Views categories of gender, class, ethnicity, sexuality, ability and age – among other – as interrelated and mutually shaping one another. It investigated how power relations influence social relations across diverse societies as well as individual experiences in everyday life
LINKS ADVISORY COMMITTEE (LAC)
Invited professionals and experts from relevant organizations (representing practitioners, researchers, and citizens) that advise, inform and validate developments and results in the project.
A sustainable stakeholder community consisting of multidisciplinary stakeholders from several countries, professions and schools of thought. The main stakeholders involved in the LINKS Community are: practitioners, industry, decision makers, researchers and networks (the scientific community) , citizens and civil society.
LINKS COMMUNITY CENTER (LCC)
The LCC brings together different stakeholders (LINKS Community) in one user-friendly and flexible web-based platform and enables them to exchange knowledge and experiences and to access, discuss and assess learning materials on the usage of SMCS in disasters.
A set of best-practices consisting of methods, tools and guidelines for enhancing the governance of diversity among the understandings and applications of SMCS in disasters for relevant stakeholders.
Methods in LINKS refer to approaches that will enable researchers and practitioners to assess the effects of SMCS for disaster resilience under diverse conditions.
Tools are practical instruments supporting first-responders, public authorities and citizens with the implementation of SMCS in disaster and security contexts.
Guidelines are recommendations for improving national and regional governance strategies on SMCS as well as introductions and explanations of how to apply the methods and tools under diverse conditions.
An interactive environment through which users can access the LINKS Community, the LINKS Community Center (LCC) and the LINKS Framework. The latter will be ingrained in the LCC to enable the assessment in local cases. The LINKS Hub is the connective tissue of LINKS: it facilitates processes (e.g. learning and information sharing) in a dynamic way and through a hybrid approach (as it is both on-line and off-line). The main objectives of the Hub are: a) building the LINKS Community around the Framework; b) facilitating on-line access to best practices using the same virtual environment c) facilitating off-line access to best practices through “local hubs” (hybrid approach) d) facilitating sustainable advanced learning.
LINKS KNOWLEDGE BASES
The outputs and knowledge optained from the assessments of the three knowledge domains.
The knoweldge is used to develop the LINKS Framework.
LINKS KNOWLEDGE DOMAINS
The three crucial domains of analysis for studying European disaster resilience and SMCS. These include:
Disaster Risk Perception and Vulnerability (DRPV), for assessing changes in the citizens’perception of disaster risks induced by SMCS, as well as assessing the changes in the vulnerability of practitioners and citizens.
Disaster Management Processes (DMP) for analysis of how SMCS changes the procedures and processes within the crisis and disaster management.
Disaster Community Technologies (DCT), for assessing SMCS related technologies used by practitioners (and citizens) in disasters.
Limited to a particular area.
The people living in, serving or responsible for a particular small area, especially of a country. Besides geographical aspects, the community may also share common values, interests, and needs (UNDP, 2009). There are multiple layers of local communities within a country.
NATIONAL PLATFORM FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
A generic term for national mechanisms for coordination and policy guidance on disaster risk reduction that are multisectoral and interdisciplinary in nature, with public, private and civil society participation involving all concerned entities within a country.
Natural hazards are naturally occurring physical phenomena caused either by rapid or slow onset events which can be geophysical (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis and volcanic activity), hydrological (avalanches and floods), climatological (extreme temperatures, drought and wildfires), meteorological (cyclones and storms/wave surges) or biological (disease epidemics and insect/animal plagues).[IFRC]
A participatory approach is one in which everyone who has a stake in the intervention has a voice, either in person or by representation.
Inclusiveness: Inclusiveness is the inclusion of all individuals and groups, specifically individuals or groups who were previously not included or excluded. It is the ability of a community to include all its members and avoid excluding any of them. Volunteering: Volunteering is time willingly given for the common good and without financial gain. A volunteer is someone who offers to do a particular task or job without being forced to do it. Community engagement: Community engagement is the collaboration between institutions of authority and their larger communities (local, regional/state, national, global) for the mutually beneficial exchange of knowledge and resources in a context of partnership and reciprocity.
The knowledge and capacities developed by governments, response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to and recover from the impacts of likely, imminent or current disasters.
Activities and measures to avoid existing and new disaster risks. Prevention expresses the concept and intention to completely avoid potential adverse impacts of hazardous events. While certain disaster risks cannot be eliminated, prevention aims at reducing vulnerability and exposure in such contexts where, as a result, the risk of disaster is removed. Prevention measures can also be taken during or after a hazardous event or disaster to prevent secondary hazards or their consequences, such as measures to prevent the contamination of water.
The term ‘public security’ is defined in the (German) police law and refers to the protection of public or individual goods from harm.
Public goods encompass the constitutional order, particularly the maintenance of the state and its institutions as well as their lawful functioning as well as the legislation in its entirety.
Individual goods particularly refer to the life, health, freedom, and general personal rights of any citizen.
The medium- and long-term rebuilding and sustainable restoration of resilient critical infrastructures, services, housing, facilities and livelihoods required for the full functioning of a community or a society affected by a disaster, aligning with the principles of sustainable development and “build back better”, to avoid or reduce future disaster risk.
The restoring or improving of livelihoods and health, as well as economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets, systems and activities, of a disaster-affected community or society, aligning with the principles of sustainable development and “build back better”, to avoid or reduce future disaster risk.
The restoration of basic services and facilities for the functioning of a community or a society affected by a disaster.
The disaster risk that remains in unmanaged form, even when effective disaster risk reduction measures are in place, and for which emergency response and recovery capacities must be maintained.
The ability of individuals, institutions, and systems to recover from disturbance and to develop and adopt alternative strategies in response to changing conditions (definition builds on Tyler & Moench, 2012; see also LINKS Glossary).
Actions taken directly before, during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public safety and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected.
Reinforcement or upgrading of existing structures to become more resistant and resilient to the damaging effects of hazards.
Risk is mainly defined as the interaction of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. Risks reflect relationships with the environment and are culturally, socially, and psychologically constructed, as the consequence of differences in lifestyle, power structure, ethical values, and linguistic uses.
The process to comprehend the nature of risk and to determine the level of risk (ISO 2009) Risk analysis provides the basis for risk evaluation and decisions about risk treatment. Risk analysis includes risk estimation.
Overall process of risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation.
See Risk Perception.
Risk communication is the process of exchanging or sharing risk-related data, information and knowledge between and among different groups such as scientists, regulators, industry, consumers or the general public.
The process of comparing the results of risk analysis with risk criteria to determine whether the risk and/or its magnitude are acceptable or tolerable (ISO 2009).
(DISASTER) RISK PERCEPTION
Risk perception is the way individuals and groups appropriate, subjectivise and perceive risks that might or might not be calculated in an objective manner during risk assessments. The importance of studying risk perception more seriously is obvious: risk perception directly influences people’s ability and level of preparedness. Risk perception covers what is also referred to as “risk awareness”.
The process of formally or informally shifting the financial consequences of particular risks from one party to another, whereby a household, community, enterprise or State authority will obtain resources from the other party after a disaster occurs, in exchange for ongoing or compensatory social or financial benefits provided to that other party.
Pre-planned storyline that drives an exercise, as well as the stimuli used to achieve exercise project performance objectives.
Security implies a stable, relatively predictable environment in which an individual or group may pursue its ends without disruption or harm and without fear of such disturbance or injury. (Fischer & Green 2004: 21). Security practice areas may be considered public security (state policing), private security, national security, private military security or many other terms, but convergence of these areas are increasing in the current social and political environment (Brooks 2011: 18).
Resources embedded in social networks and social structure, which can be mobilized by actors’ (Dynes, 2002, p. 3) that can include also trust, knowledge sharing, level of freedom and power relations.
A group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of the Web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content (UGC)Forms of media that allow people to communicate and share information using the internet or mobile phones.
Web 2.0 is the Internet we are familiar with today in which people are not just consumers of information but producers of knowledge through social networking sites and services like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.
Stakeholder engagement is the practice of interacting with, and influencing project stakeholders to the overall benefit of the project and its advocates…Their requirements, expectations, perceptions, personal agendas and concerns will influence the project, shape what success looks like, and impact the outcomes that can be achieved.
Considers mainly the most current research in a given area or concerning a given topic. It often summarises current and emergent trends, research priorities and standardisations in a particular field of interest. It may offer new perspectives on an issue or point out an area in need of further research.
SUSTAINABLE ADVANCED LEARNING
A maintainable and evolving collection of knowledge and best practices produced for and by relevant stakeholders.
Sustainable advanced learning entails a cognitive dimension (the capability to gain in-depth knowledge of crises and crisis response) and a social dimension (the ability to implement that knowledge into new practices). In LINKS, sustainable advanced learning is the precondition for resilience.
A system is understood as a group of interacting and interdependent technologies, institutions and individuals that form a unified whole. A system is both social and technical and consists of many elements that are linked together in a complex web of interactions.
Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings.
Risks whose financial consequences can be formally or informally shifted from one party to another (adapted from UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2017)
The conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes which increase the susceptibility of an individual, a community, assets or systems to the impacts of hazards.
The LINKS project focuses on social vulnerability, which is interpreted as a function of exposure, susceptibility and resilience. It is a pre-existing and fluid condition, result of processes built over time (e.g. social power relations at national and international levels) and all the environmental and social circumstances that allow or limit community’s capacity to deal with risks.
Those groups that due to physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes, are more exposed and susceptible to the impacts of hazards.